Innovations in Web Accessibility:
Reviewing the Last Decade and Identifying Transformative Opportunities

Jason White <>


Research and Standardization

The Challenge of Educational Contexts

Accessible Rich Internet Applications (ARIA): Characterizing the Problems

  1. Dynamic HTML
  2. The need for improved navigation.

Problem: Dynamic HTML

A Problem for Assistive Technologies: Accessibility APIs

Solution: Adding ARIA attributes to the Document

A Simple HTML Example

A two-state checkbox, as it could appear in an application, may be represented in HTML and ARIA as follows.

<span role="checkbox" aria-checked="false" tabindex="0">
  <img src="unchecked.png" role="presentation">Simple checkbox</span>


Problem: inadequate navigation

Solution: Structural and Landmark ARIA Roles

Scope for Extensions

Using the Tools of the Web to Implement Assistive Technologies

Solution: Implementing the AT as a Browser Extension



Example: Support for Mathematics


Individualized Accessibility: Sample Scenarios

Generalizing the Problems

Solution: Personal Needs and Preferences Profiles, Metadata

Scenarios Revisited

Standards that Support Needs/Preferences Profiles and Metadata

IndieUI User Contexts Specification


Preference Discovery and Metadata Collection

Recent research has started to explore:

See Preferences for Global Access: Profile Creation Support for Cloud-Based Accessibility.

The Rapid Development of Mobile Devices

Convergence of Interest: Mobile Devices and Accessibility

The Need for Abstract Input Events

Current Specifications and Guidelines

Solution: IndieUI Events

Examples of Abstract Input Events

There are events for

These are non-exhaustive examples.

Proposed Extensions

The Importance of Convergence

Toward Greater User Interface Abstraction?

Concluding Observations